TIN - Sn - [stannum]

Silver-white, very soft metal, viscous at the room temperature (beta modification). At a temperature below + 13.2°C it is scattered in gray powder (an alpha modification). Low-melting, high-boiling. Doesn't react with water, hydrate of ammonia. Shows amphoteric properties. Reacts with acids and concentrated alkalis. Is oxidized by halogens, oxygen, chalcogens.


Molar mass g/mol 118.710
Density g/cm3 5.75(alpha),7.31(beta)
Melting point °C 231.9681
Boiling point °C 2620

Methods for the preparation of Tin:

2SnO = SnO2 + Sn(liquid) (400°C).

2Na[Sn(OH)3](solution) = Sn↓ + Na2[Sn(OH)6] (normal temp.) .

2SnSO4 + 2H2O → Electrolysis → 2Sn↓(on cathode) + O2↑(on anode) + 2H2SO4.

SnCl2 + M = MCl2 + Sn (200-300°C, M = Mg, Zn).

3SnCl2 + 2Al = 2AlCl3 + 3Sn (250-300°C).

SnCl2(melt) → Electrolysis → Sn↓(on cathode) + Cl2↑(on anode).


Сhemical reactions with Tin:

Sn + 3HCl(conc.) = H[SnCl3] + H2↑ (time).

Sn + 2HCl(gas) = SnCl2 + H2 (150-250°C).

Sn + 2H2SO4(conc.) = SnSO4 + SO2↑ + 2H2O (time, impurity Sn(SO4)2).

Sn + 4HNO3(conc.) = SnO2↓ + 4NO2↑ + 2H2O (boiling).

5Sn + 12HNO3(diluted) = 5Sn(NO3)2 + N2↑ + 6H2O (time, impurity NO).

Sn + 10HNO3(high diluted) = 4Sn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O (time).

Sn + NaOH(conc. cold) + 2H2O = Na[Sn(OH)3] + H2↑ (time).

Sn + 2NaOH(conc.) + 4H2O = Na2[Sn(OH)6] + 2H2↑ (boiling).

3Sn + 4HNO3(conc.) + 18HCl(conc.) = 3H2[SnCl6] + 4NO↑ + 8H2O.

Sn + O2 = SnO2 (200°C, burning on air).

Sn + 2E2 = SnE4 (until 100°C, E = F; normal temp., E = Cl, Br).

Sn + I2 = SnI2 (boiling in the diluted HCl).

Sn + 2I2 = SnI4 (boiling in the liquid CCl4).

Sn + E = SnE (900°C, E = S, Se, Te).

Sn + 2S = SnS2 (430-440°C, in the presence of NH4Cl).

Sn(powder) + CuSO4(solution) = SnSO4 + Cu↓ (in diluted H2SO4).


 

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