GERMANIUM - Ge

Light gray, fragile, solid metal. In damp air becomes covered by an oxidic film. Possesses small reactionary ability. Doesn't react with water, diluted acids, alkalis, hydrate of ammonia. Reacts with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Brought into solution by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of alkalis. Reacts with oxygen, halogens, chalcogens, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen sulfide.


Molar mass g/mol 72.610
Density g/cm3 5.350
Melting point °C 937
Boiling point °C 2850

Methods for the preparation of Germanium:

GeH4 = Ge + 2H2 (220-350°C).

GeO2 + 2H2 = Ge + 2H2O (600-650°C).

GeO2 + C(coke) = Ge + CO2 (500-600°C, in the atm. of hydrogen).

GeCl4 + 2H2 = Ge + 4HCl (700°C).


Сhemical reactions with Germanium:

Ge + 4H2SO4(conc.) = Ge(SO4)2 + 2SO2↑ + 4H2O.

Ge + 4HNO3(conc.) = GeO2↓ + 4NO2↑ + 2H2O (time).

3Ge + 4HNO3(conc.) + 12HCl(conc.) = 3GeCl4↓(liquid) + 4NO↑ + 8H2O.

Ge + 2NaOH(diluted) + 2H2O2 = Na2GeO3 + 3H2O.

Ge + 2NaOH(conc.) + 2H2O2 = Na2[Ge(OH)6].

Ge + 4H0(Mg, diluted H2SO4) = GeH4↑ (impurities of GenH2n+2, n>1).

Ge + O2 = GeO2 (over 700°C).

Ge + 2F2 = GeF4 (100°C, burning in the fluorine).

Ge + 2E2 = GeE4 (150-200°C, E = Cl; 350°C, E = Br; 560°C, E = I).

Ge + 2S = GeS (600-860°C).

Ge + S = GeS (over 1000°C).

Ge + E = GeE (600-700°C, E = Se, Te).

Ge + 2HF(liquid) = GeF2 + H2↑ (200°C, pressure).

Ge + H2S = GeS + H2 (600-800°C).

3Ge + 4NH3 = Ge3N4 + 6H2 (650-700°C).

Ge + CO2 = GeO + CO (700-900°C).

3Ge + 2SO2 = 2GeO2 + GeS2 (over 500°C).


 

Did you know?

DNA is flame retardant.