CARBON - C

Properties of Carbon:

Nonmetal. A steady form of existence of an element of carbon (alpha-C). Are known also thermodynamic metastable forms: beta-C - diamond, (C2)n - carbyne, C60 and C70 - fullerens. Graphite - gray-black, with metal gloss, fat to the touch, soft, possesses conductivity. Chemically active (in difference from diamond and a carbyne). Reacts with hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, sulfur, metals. Typical reducer. Reacts with water vapor, the concentrated nitric acid, oxides of metals. Receiving in the industry - pyrolysis of coal or hydrocarbons.


Molar mass g/mol 12.011
Density g/cm3 2.27
Melting point °C 3800
Boiling point °C 4000

Сhemical reactions with Carbon:

C + H2O(steam) = CO + H2 (800-1000°C).

C + 2H2SO4(conc., hot) = CO2↑ + 2SO2↑ + 2H2O.

C + 4HNO3(conc., hot) = CO2↑ + 4NO2↑ + 2H2O.

C + 2H2 = CH4 (600°C, pressure, catalyst - Pt).

2C + H2 = C2H2 (1500-2000°C).

C + O2 = CO2 (600-700°C, burning on air).

2C + O2 = 2CO (over 1000°C).

C+ 2F2 = CF4 (over 900°C).

C + 2S = CS2 (700-800°C).

2C + N2 = C2N2 (on electric discharge).

2C + H2 + N2 = 2HCN (over 1800°C).

C + Si = SiC (1200-1300°C).

2C + Ca = CaC2 (550°C).

C + 2PbO = 2Pb + CO2 (600°C).

2C + Na2SO4 = Na2S + 2CO2 (600°C).

2C + Na2CO3 = 2Na + 3CO (900-1000°C).

3C + 8H2SO4(conc.) + 2K2Cr2O7(conc.) = 3CO2↑ + 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 2K2SO4 + 8H2O.

C → (HNO3 + H2SO4 + KClO3(KMnO4)) → CnO(graphite oxide) n=2-2.75.

2C + nF2 = 2CFn(graphite fluoride) n <1.12, 450°C.

8C + F2 = 2(C4+)(F-) (in the atm. HF).

(8+x)C + M = MC(8+x) (M = K, Rb, Cs; until 150°C).

C(diamond) → Time → C(graphite) (over 1200°C).

(C2)n(carbyne) → Time → 2nC(graphite) (2300°C).


 

Did you know?

Empirical formulas show the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a formula.