Properties of Potassium :

An alkali metal. A silvery-white (in a thin layer - with a purple tinge), soft, low melting. Blue-green pairs of potassium consist from atoms of K (mainly) and K2 molecules. Chemically dissolves in liquid ammonia (dark blue solution), in the molten hydroxide potassium. It is extremely reactive, the strongest reducing agent, reacts with O2 of air, water (there is ignition of the evolved hydrogen), dilute acids, non-metals, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide. Practically does not react with nitrogen (in contrast to Li and Na). It is well preserved under a layer of gasoline or kerosene. With the mercury forms an amalgam. Do not fused with Li, Mg, Zn, Cd, Al and Ga. Forms intermetallic compounds with Na, Tl, Sn, Pb and Bi. Colors the flame of a gas burner in a purple color. The fifth element of the spread in nature.

Molar mass g/mol 39.098
Density in solid state g/cm3 0.8629
Melting point °C 63.51
Boiling point °C 760

Obtaining metallic potassium:

2KH = 2K + H2 (400°C, vacuum).

4KOH (liquid) → Electrolysis → 4K(cathode) + O2↑(anode) + 2H2O.

2KCl (liquid) → Electrolysis → 2K(cathode) + Cl2↑(anode).

2KCl + 2H2O → Electrolysis → H2↑(cathode) + Cl2↑(anode) + 2KOH

2KCl(melt) → (on Hg-cathode) → Electrolysis → 2 K(cathode) + Cl2↑(anode).

Chemical reactions with metallic potassium:

2K + 2H2O = 2KOH + H2↑.

2K + 2HCl (diluted) = 2KCl + H2↑.

8K + 6H2SO4 (diluted) = 4K2SO4 + SO2 + S↓ + 6 H2O (impurityH2S)

21K + 26HNO3 (diluted) = 21KNO3 + NO↑ + N2O↑ + N2↑ + 13H2O.

2K + 2KOH = 2K2O + H2 (450°C).

2K + H2 = 2KH (200-350°C).

K + O2 (air) = KO2 (burning, impurity of K2O2)

K → ( +O2 ) → K2O2↓ → ( +O2, time) → KO2↓ (-50° C, in the liquid NH3).

4K + O2 + 2H2O = 4KOH.

2K + E2 = 2KE (normal temp.; E = F, Cl, Вr, I).

2K + E = K2E (100-200°C; E = S, Se, Te).

3K + P (red) = K3P (green) [200°C, in the atmosphere Аr].

2K + 2H2S (saturated) = 2KHS↓ + H2↑ (in benzene).

2K + 2NH3 (gas) = 2KNH2 + H2 (65-105°C).

K + 6NH3 (liquid) = [K(NH3)6] (dark-blue) [-50°C]

[K(NH3)6] + n NH3 (liquid) ↔ [K(NH3)6]+ + e-·nNH3.


Did you know?

Hot peppers get their heat from a molecule called capsaicin. While the molecule acts as an irritant to mammals, including humans, birds lack the receptor responsible for the effect and are immune to the burning sensation from exposure.