SODIUM HYDROXIDE NaOH

Properties of sodium hydroxide NaOH:

Caustic soda, caustic. White, hygroscopic, melts and boils without decomposition. Readily soluble in water (with a high exo-effect), creates in the solution a highly alkaline environment. Greatly reduces the solubility of many salts of sodium in the water. Does not dissolve in liquid ammonia. Exhibits the properties of basic oxides (refers to alkali), neutralized by acid, reacts with acidic oxides. Absorbs CO2 from the air. Reacts with nonmetals, metals, amphoteric oxides and hydroxides.


Molar mass g/mol 40.00
Density g/cm3 2.13
Melting point °C 321
Boiling point °C 1390
Solubility in water at 20°C g/100g water 108.7

Obtaining sodium hydroxide NaOH:

2 Na + 2H2O = 2 NaOH + H2↑.

4 Na + O2 + 2H2O = 4 NaOH.

Na2O + H2O = 2 NaOH.

Na2CO3 + MCO3 (saturated) = MCO3↓ + 2 NaOH (M = Ca, Sr, Ba).

2 NaCl + 2H2O →Electrolysis H2↑(cathode) + Cl2↑(anode) + 2 NaOH

2 NaCl (melt) (on Hg-cathode)→Electrolysis→ 2Na(cathode) + Cl2↑(anode).


Reactions with sodium hydroxide NaOH:

NaOH-H2O = NaOH + H2O (100-400°C, vacuum).

NaOH (diluted) + 4H2O = [Na(H2O)4](+) + ОН(-).

NaOH + НСl (diluted) = NaCl + H2O.

2 NaOH + H2SO4 (diluted) = Na2SO4 + H2O

NaOH + H2SO4 (conc.,cold) = NaHSO4 + H2O.

NaOH + HNO3 (diluted) = NaNO3 + H2O.

NaOH (diluted) + H3PO4 (conc.) = NaH2PO4 + H2O

2 NaOH (diluted.) + H3PO4 (diluted) = Na2HPO4 + 2H2O

3 NaOH (conc.) + H3PO4 (diluted) = Na3PO4 + 3H2O.

NaOH + HF(diluted) = NaF + H2O

NaOH + 2HF (conc.) = Na(HF2) + H2O.

NaOH (conc.) + HCN = NaCN + H2O.

6 NaOH (diluted) + 4 F2= OF2↑ + 6 NaF + O2↑ + 3H2O.

2 NaOH (conc., cold) + E2 = NaEO + NaE + H2O (E = Cl, Br, I)

6 NaOH (conc.,hot) + 3E2 = NaEO3 + 5NaE + 3H2O. (E = Cl, Br, I)

12 NaOH (conc.,hot) + 5Cl2 + Br2 = 2NaBrO3 + 10NaCl + 6H2O.

20 NaOH (conc.,hot) + 7Cl2 + I2 = 2Na3H2IO6↓ +14NaCl + 8H2O

24 NaOH (conc.,cold) + 7Cl2 + I2 = 2Na5IO6↓ +14NaCl + 12H2O.

6 NaOH + 3 Br2 + 2(NH3-H2O) →time→ 6NaBr + N2↑ + 8H2O (normal temp.).

2 NaOH(hot) + I2 + H2O2 =2 NaI + O2↑ + 2H2O

2 NaOH(cold) + I2 + H2S(gas) = 2 NaI + S↓ + 2 H2O.

2 NaOH + 2Na = 2 Na2O + H2 (600°C).

4 NaOH + 3Ca = 3 CaO + Na2O + 2 Na + 2H2 (600°C).

2 (NaOH-H2O) + 2Al = 2 NaAlO2 + 3H2 (400-500°C)

2 NaOH (conc.) + 6 H2O(hot) + 2Al = 2 Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2↑.

2 NaOH (conc.) + 2 H2O + Zn = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2↑.

NaOH (diluted) + EO2 = NaHEO3 (E = С, S)

2 NaOH (conc.) + EO2 = Na2EO3 + H2O.

4 NaOH (conc.) + SiO2 →time→ Na4SiO4 + 2H2O

2 NaOH + SiO2 = Na2SiO3 + H2O (900-1000°C).

4 NaOH + 6NO = 4 NaNO2 + N2 + 2H2O (300-400°C).

2 NaOH (cold) + NO + NO2 = 2NaNO2 + H2O

4 NaOH (hot) + 4 NO2 + O2 = 4NaNO3 + 2H2O.

2 NaOH + Al2O3 = 2 NaAlO2 + H2O (900-1100°C)

NaOH + Al(OH)3 = NaAlO2 + 2H2O (1000°C).

2 NaOH (conc., hot) + 3 H2O + Al2O3 = 2 Na[Al(OH)4]

NaOH (conc.) + Al(OH)3 = Na[Al(OH)4].

2 NaOH (conc. 60%) + H2O + ZnO = Na2[Zn(OH)4] (90°C)

2 NaOH (conc.) + Zn(OH)2 = Na2[Zn(OH)4] (normal temp.).

NaOH (conc.) + NH4Cl(conc.) = NaCl + NH3↑ + H2O (boiling).

2 NaOH (diluted) + FeI2 = 2 NaI + Fe(OH)2↓ (in the atmosphere of N2)

2 NaOH (diluted) + 2 AgNO3 = Ag2O↓ + H2O + 2 NaNO3.

3 NaOH (diluted) + AlCl3 = Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl

4 NaOH (conc.) + AlCl3 = Na[Al(OH)4] + 3 NaCl.

2 NaOH (conc.) + ZnCl2 = Zn(OH)2↓ + 2NaCl

4 NaOH (conc.) + ZnCl2 = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + 2 NaCl.

2 NaOH (diluted, conc.) + Zn + 2 SO2 = Na2S2O4 + Zn(OH)2↓.

2 NaOH + 2 H2O + 3H2O2(conc.) = Na2O2-2H2O2-4H2O↓ (0°C)

Na2O2-2H2O2-4H2O = Na2O2 + 2 H2O2 + 4 H2O (normal temp., over conc. H2SO4).

4 NaOH (melt) →Electrolysis→ 4Na(cathode) + O2↑(anode) + 2H2O.


 

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The Periodic table of the elements is an organized chart of all known elements.